McGeorge Bundy

LBJ 1965

The carrot and the stick: LBJ addresses the nation on the conflict in Vietnam


In an April 1965 address to the nation, President Lyndon Johnson laid out his argument for expanding US involvement in Vietnam. From archival audio, we now know that Johnson had believed for at least a year that the conflict was a disaster in the making. Why did he continue to push for escalation in a war he didn’t think was worth fighting?

USS Maddox

What really happened in the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964?

Global Politics